23 de marzo de 2011

La Guerra de los Treinta Años (1618-1648)

La Guerra de los Treinta años se inició cuando un católico, Fernando II, en el año 1617, fue coronado como emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico y rey de Bohemia, ante la oposición de la mayoría protestante, sobre todo calvinista, que solicitó apoyo a países extranjeros. Los dos concejales católicos y sus representantes, fueron arrojados por una ventana del palacio, aunque sin consecuencias graves en su integridad física, cuando intentaban preparar el recibimiento del nuevo rey.

Esta disputa iniciada por motivos religiosos, pronto se desnaturalizó, ya que Francia, católica se unió a los protestantes de Holanda y Suecia, mientras que Alemania, luterana, pero con un gobierno católico, luchó junto a los estados católicos de España y Austria. Estos países privilegiaron más extender sus dominios, que los motivos religiosos. España apoyó a Fernando II, pues su rey, Felipe IV, era sobrino de aquél, y no pudo obviar su pedido de auxilio.

Los territorios alemanes fueron objeto de la codicia de Francia, España, Suecia y Dinamarca.

El 10 de junio de 1619, en la batalla de Sablat, Austria, demostró su valor y potencia militar al derrotar a los protestantes de Bohemia, al mando del conde Thurn.

Sin embargo, la parte norte y sur de Austria, se unió a los Bohemios, reemplazando al rey de Bohemia, Fernando II, por Federico V, Elector del Palatinado, y líder de la Liga de la Unión Evangélica.


En 1629, el rey depuesto, con sus fuerzas unidas, venció a su reemplazante cerca de la ciudad de Praga, trayendo como consecuencia, la desintegración de la Liga de la Unión Evangélica y la pérdida de tierras para los protestantes de Bohemia, además de sus títulos de nobleza. Se apoderó además de Moravia y el Palatinado.

El soberano de Dinamarca, Cristian IV, luterano, brindó ayuda a los de su mismo credo en Alemania, contra el Sacro Imperio, gobernado por Fernando II. Éste contó con el apoyo de las fuerzas a cargo de Albrecht von Wallenstein, quien consiguió el permiso de saquear los lugares invadidos. El rey dinamarqués sufrió una aplastante derrota en Lutter en el año 1626. Tres años más tarde, se arribó a un acuerdo, el tratado de Lübeck, por el cual, Cristian IV, conservó su poder en Dinamarca a cambio de retirar su apoyo a los protestantes alemanes. Se estableció el “Acta de Restitución” por la cual, la iglesia católica recuperó sus dominios en territorios protestantes.

Por su valiente actuación en esta contienda merece destacarse Suecia, cuyo rey, Gustavo Adolfo, hombre de notable cultura y conocedor de las tácticas bélicas, arrasó con los ejércitos católicos de Tilly y Wallenstein, mediante ataques “relámpago”, afirmando el poder de Suecia sobre el mar Báltico. Este hábil guerrero, venció a la Liga Católica en la Batalla de Breitenfeld, en 1631 y en la de Lech, en 1632, donde Tilly pereció. El rey sueco murió en la batalla de Lutzen, en 1632, aunque su pueblo se alzó con la victoria.

En estas exitosas campañas militares Suecia logró recuperar el territorio de Dinamarca, y la zona norte alemana.

Esta etapa triunfal terminó para Suecia, cuando España envió sus fuerzas en apoyo a los católicos y resultaron victoriosos, en la batalla de Nördlingen.

Sin embargo, la adhesión de Wallenstein a la causa católica era sospechosa, ya que se temía que conspirase a favor de los protestantes, y finalmente esto ocurrió muriendo asesinado, por uno de sus hombres, cuando intentaba traicionar a los católicos brindando información a los suecos.

La Paz de Praga, establecida en el año 1635, intentó poner punto final a este largo y cruel conflicto, dejándose los límites establecidos a la fecha designada en la Paz de Augsburgo, estableciéndose un único ejército del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, formado por las fuerzas del emperador y los estados de Alemania.

La Francia católica, de Luis XIII, y del primer ministro, Cardenal Richelieu, no estaba satisfecha con la paz lograda y se unió a Suecia y a Holanda, países protestantes, desatando la ira de España, que hostigó los dominios franceses, sitiando París.

Fue con la muerte del Cardenal Richelieu, en 1642, y la de Luis XIII en 1643, cuando comenzó a vislumbrarse la posibilidad concreta de paz.
Tras la derrota española en Lens, ocurrida en octubre del año 1648, se firmó la paz de Westfalia, por la cual los Habsburgos comenzaron a sentir la pérdida de su inmenso poder.


Fuente:
La Guía 2000

89 comentarios :

  1. En realidad las causas son más complejas, pues siempre hubo un Emperador Católico de la Casa de Austria. Sin embargo, los anteriores, como Fernando I se habían mostrado más condescendientes con el la religión protestante, en cambio Fernando II, educado en las más estrictas leyes de la Contrarreforma por los jesuitas de Ingolstadt, no quiso hacer la más mínima concesión a los reformados...el temor se extendió ante los éxitos conjuntos de España y Austria, las dos ramas de la Agustísima Casa, lo que obligó a entrar en Guerra a Francia en apoyo de sus aliados suecos y protestantes...la paz llegaría en 1648 en Westfalia, pero la Guerra Hispano-Francesa se extendería hasta 1659 con la firma de la Paz de los Pirineos.

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